Databases are structures designed to store data in an organized and easily accessible manner. We find the use of databases everywhere in the modern world. Sale transactions, medical records, criminal records, voter list records, product information, employee details, and much more are stored effectively using structured databases. Web pages, applications, blogs, et cetera use databases to store a large amount of data, organize it in a structured way and manage it. Laravel is used by web developers all around the world in web development projects. It is a PHP web application framework that eases tasks such as routing, caching, sessions and authentication. Occasionally, many users have reported the sqlstate hy000 error 2002 laravel. In this article, we shall explore all the possible causes of this error and the working fixes for it.
The SQLSTATE [HY000] error 
When web developers configure or set up any PHP apps, they include the details of the said database in the configuration file. Other popular content management systems or CMSs such as Joomla, WordPress, Magento, et cetera use a similar procedure. Modified or updated settings on the website get saved on the database. For proper functioning, the MySQL host server and the database should not have any connectivity problems. To generalize, the sqlstate hy000 error means that there is a connection problem between the database and website.
This fault in the database connection can occur due to many reasons. Some of them might be missing files, unavailability of sufficient resources on the server, restriction on the port, incorrect database details in the config file, and others. Users have seen several scenarios of the sqlstate hy000 2002 connection refused error. A few examples of these errors are:
Connection failed: SQLSTATE[HY000]  No such file or directory
Connection failed: SQLSTATE[HY000]  Connection refused
SQLSTATE[HY000]  Resource temporarily unavailable
exit status 3
Reasons for the SQLSTATE [HY000] error 
We shall now have an in-depth look at the possible reasons for the sqlstate hy000 2002 no such file or directory error. A nonfunctional MySQL server, incorrect database settings and lack of server resources can cause this error. We have explained these reasons in detail below.
Wrong database settings
Wrong or incorrect database settings in the configuration file can cause the sqlstate hy000 2002 connection refused error on your website. To ensure that the PHP application works perfectly, you should enter the correct database user details, passwords, and the database server name in the configuration file. For example, when the MySQL service is working on the 127.0.0.1 address, similar settings should be used in the database connection string. The MySQL server on this IP address should receive connections properly.
MySQL server stopped
Another commonly found reason for the sqlstate hy000 error can be your MySQL server. When the MySQL server is not running or it is stopped, you can get an error. In such a case, the database cannot connect with the website and there will a connection error between them. This can happen due to a lack of resources on the server, corrupted MySQL libraries, etc
Lack of server resources
Having a large amount of MySQL queries will require and consume a higher amount of server memory. This is a pretty common reason for the sqlstate hy000 2000 error. With fewer resources on the server, there will be more server load when websites use memory-intensive queries. This can cause your website to stop functioning and an error will pop up.
Ways to fix the SQLSTATE [HY000] error 
Now we will discuss some ways and methods to resolve the sqlstate hy000 2002 connection refused error. Following are the three ways that can be used to fix this error.
Verifying the running status of the MySQL server
We will ensure that the MySQL server is running perfectly without any issues. A normal running MySQL server will generate the following snippet:
mysql.service – MySQL Community Server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Active: active (running) since Thu 2022-06-17 18:13:51 xx; 3 weeks 6 days ago
Correctly modifying the configuration file
Now, we will check if the PHP script is working with the proper database details such as the username, password, hostname, etc. or not. If everything is alright, the website will show data from the database. This tells us that the connection between the MySQL server and the website is happening. With the help of the command line, we can also check the connection of MySQL database users. If the error still exists, then it may be happening at specified intervals of time.
Allocating server resources properly
In the previous step, we found out that the configuration file error does not exist and the error might be due to a lack of server resources. So, now, we check the server resources. Once you check the memory usage on the server, you can reallocate the server resources. If there is a high memory usage on your server then we can perform some edits to the MySQL server for gaining more efficient resource management. MySQL parameters such as innodb _ buffer _ pool _ instances, join _ buffer _ size and table _ open _ cache can be tweaked to improve the server performance and free up the server resources.
Once you are done with the tweaks, you reboot the MySQL servers and services and the performance of the server will improve significantly. This will also fix the sqlstate hy000 2000 error.
We hope that now you have a thorough understanding of how the SQLSTATE [HY000] error  is caused and how one may easily fix it without much trouble. Insufficient server memory and resources, wrong configuration file and non-operational MySQL server are the major causes of this error. You can solve this error in your system by carefully following the steps that we have explained above. Once these steps are followed, you can restart your server and the website will start to function properly without any issues.